Frequently Asked Questions

Orders and Shipping

1.1 How much does Mars regolith simulant cost?
1.2 When should my order arrive?
1.3 Does The Martian Garden ship worldwide?
1.4 Can I use my own shipping service?
1.5 Do you accept purchase orders?

Mars Regolith Simulant

2.1 Does it come from Mars?
2.2 Why is it called "Regolith"?
2.3 How was Mojave Mars Simulant (MMS) developed?
2.4 How similar is MMS to Mars?
2.5 Does MMS contain perchlorate salts?
2.6 Is MMS Safe?
2.7 How is MMS made?
2.8 What is the difference between MMS-1 and MMS-2?
2.9 How is MMS-2 made?
2.10 How much simulant is required to fill a container of a certain size?

Orders and Shipping

1.1 How much does Mars regolith simulant cost?

Our simulant ranges starts at about $30 per kilogram, depending on quantity and grade. Per pound prices decrease with quantity, and discounts are available for educators, researchers, and museums. If you're planning a project that requires large quantities of Mars regolith simulant, please don't hesitate to contact us.

1.2 When should my order arrive?

Typically about 3 - 5 days domestically, and 7-16 days for international orders.

Processing, fulfillment, and packaging usually take between 1 and 3 days depending on order volume before it ships, at which point you’ll receive a confirmation email indicating your simulant is on the way. Orders are shipped via USPS Priority Mail from Austin, Texas and will typically arrive within 2 days if your domestic address is near a major city, or 3-5 days if considered rural. Federal holidays, busy seasons, and weather events may also impact delivery time.

1.3 Does The Martian Garden ship worldwide?

Yes, The Martian Garden does ship internationally, although due to the prohibitively high cost associated with mailing a dense material such as simulant, free shipping is only available for domestic orders.

The Martian Garden complies with required shipping practices and guidelines, including duties requirements set forth by US Customs, and is not responsible for any additional importation duties imposed by an order placed to a foreign country.

Please make sure that the shipping address provided is as accurate and uncluttered to help ensure that your order will arrive without conflict.

1.4 Can I use my own shipping service?

Yes. If you have a preferred shipping carrier such as UPS or FedEx, then our team can assist in dropping your order with a preferred carrier for an additional 10% handling fee. Please have your carrier account information along with your preferred delivery speed available when you contact us.

1.5 Do you accept purchase orders?

Yes. The Martian Garden is a proponent of efficiency, including in the workspace, which is why we are proud to offer a robust and secure online commerce platform designed for users to simply and safely place orders directly from our website - where you can also shop and compare pricing with ease.

However, if a less modern method to acquire simulant is required, then simply contact us and our team will readily assist by manually processing your request for an additional 10% administrative fee. A quote can be provided on request followed by an invoice, and after payment is received in full just as with any other order placed, it will then be processed, fulfilled and shipped. For more details regarding shipping, please refer to the previously answered FAQ information provided above.

Please note: The Martian Garden is not equipped to support the use of facsimile machine technology, nor will be.

Mars Regolith Simulant

2.1. Does it come from Mars?

NoActual Martian soil - or "Regolith" - has never been returned to Earth. Mars regolith simulants are aggregates (crushed blends) of Earth materials which have been selected for their chemical similarity to the crust of Mars.

2.2. Why is it called "Regolith" instead of "Soil"?

The terms "Soil" and "Dirt" have specific meanings - here on Earth. For example, "Soil" refers to a mixture of eroded rocks and minerals, clay and loam, decayed organic material, and a robust ecosystem of soil bacteria, fungi, insects and more.

"Regolith", on the other hand, refers to any loose, eroded material that is found on the surface of any planetary body. For example, the loose, dust-to-gravel sized sands that cover the surface of Mars are known as Mars Regolith. Similarly, the fine dusty material on the surface of Earth's Moon is known as lunar regolith. There's also Venusian regolith, Plutonian Regolith, and even Asteroid Regolith. 

2.3. How/Where/When was Mojave Mars Simulant (MMS) developed?

In 2007, NASA and JPL Scientists developing the robotic scoop of the Mars Phoenix lander discovered that the Mars simulant available at the time (Orbitech JSC-Mars 1) had a tendency to rapidly absorb water. Because searching for water ice was Phoenix' primary mission, a new simulant was required to more closely simulate the surface of Mars.

The In Situ Instrument Systems and Planetary Science sections of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), led by Dr. Gregory Peters, set out to create a new Mars simulant. They selected Saddleback basalt, an iron-rich igneous rock found in an ancient volcano in the Mojave desert, as a source material. Whole rocks were crushed, then separated into different sizes of particles.

2.4. How similar is MMS to Mars?

Earth and Mars are both rocky, terrestrial planets, and are geologically similar in many ways. The crusts of both planets are principally composed of Silicate minerals, such as quartz, that are made up of silicon and oxygen. After silicates, the next most dominant minerals are iron oxide and aluminum oxide. On Earth, aluminum oxide is more common than iron oxide; on Mars, iron oxide is more dominant than aluminum oxide. This important difference is what gives Mars its red color, and is one of the most important differences between Earth and Mars.

The original Mojave Mars Simulant is composed of an igneous rock - basalt - that has a higher concentration of iron than many other igneous rocks on Earth. This gives the material a reddish color like Mars, and changes the aluminum-iron ratio to a value closer to that found on Mars.

2.5. Does MMS contain perchlorates?

No. Although perchlorate salts have recently been identified on Mars, exposure has been linked to thyroid problems in humans. It would be unsafe for our customers and our staff to handle perchlorate salts without personal protective equipment. 

If your research requires the use of perchlorate salts in your simulant, we recommend adding either calcium or magnesium perchlorate to MMS-2 Enhanced Mars Simulant at a 0.006:0.994 gram-to-gram ratio. 

2.6. Is MMS Safe?

Mojave Mars Simulant is crushed basalt - an extremely common, naturally occuring, non-toxic igneous rock. Small particles of basalt are present in all grades of MMS and can be a particulate inhalation hazard. Use respiratory and eye protection when working with large, dry quantities of MMS.

Read our Safety Data Sheet

2.7. How is MMS Made?

We produce Mojave Mars Simulant using techniques and sources developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the Mars Phoenix Mission. We start with whole rocks and boulders of Saddleback Basalt, an iron-rich igneous rock. These are crushed to a mixture of grades that range from gravel to fine dust. Mixed material is then sift-separated into three different size grades, packaged and vacuum-sealed.

2.8. What's the difference between MMS-1 and MMS-2?

MMS-1 is the original Mojave Mars Simulant, developed by the JPL for the Mars Phoenix Mission. We use the same techniques and source material identified in the original NASA research.

MMS-2 is an Enhanced Mars Simulant. We start with Super Fine Grade MMS-1, then add iron III oxide, silicate minerals, sulfates, and magnesium oxide. These additives enhance the chemical similarity of MMS-2, making it as close to Mars as possible.

2.9. How is MMS-2 Made?

Enhanced Mojave Mars Simulant 2 (MMS-2) is a chemically enriched blend of Mars regolith simulant. Based on MMS-1, we add Iron III Oxide, Silicon Dioxide, Magnesium Oxide and Calcium Oxide. The addition of these compounds changes the Aluminum Oxide : Iron Oxide ratio. This ratio is critical - on Earth, aluminum oxides are dominant, while iron oxides are more abundant on Mars. By changing the Al:Fe Ratio, we can get MMS-2 closer to the chemical composition of Mars than any other Martian simulant.

2.10 How much simulant is required to fill a container of a certain size?

The best way to determine how much simulant your project will require is to first determine the volume of the containers or area you'll be filling with material - measure the container's length, width, and height, then multiply all three - length x width x height. Then, multiply the volume of your container by the density of the simulant grade you'll be using (see below). For example, to completely fill a 4' x 4' x 1' box with fine grade material (66lb/ft3), you'd need (4x4x1)x66 = 1,056 pounds of fine grade MMS-1.

 
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